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SCIENCE WRITING IN ORIYA 

1850 - 1950 


An Electronic Compilation of 
Science Articles and Sooks in 
Oriya Language 


Srujanika 

Bhubaneswar 


Vigyan Prasar 
New Delhi 


2010 


Contents 


Foreword 

Preface 

Credits and Acknowledgement 

INTRODUCTION 6 

Emergence of Modern Oriya Literature 
The Year 1866 - A Turning Point 
Modem Oriya Literature: Facets and Characters 
Oriya Periodicals 
Science Books in Oriya 
Works of Reference 
Science Articles in Oriya Periodicals 
The Writers of Oriya Science Articles 
Supporting Activities 
Technical Terms in Oriya 
Summing Up 
Important End Note 
References 

TABLES 18 

Table 1: Some Important Oriya Periodicals in Publication Before 1950 
Table 2: Pre-1950 Science Books and Reference Works 
Table 3: Selected Science Articles in Oriya Published Between 1850 and 1950 
Table 4: Science Writers in Oriya Language (1850-1950) 

Table 5: Oriya Science Writings: Some Statistics 

Table 5a: Number of Articles Found in the Major Periodicals 
Table 5b: Distribution of Articles According to Length 
Table 5c: Number of Articles Published Over Different Periods 
Table 5d: Number of Articles Published by Different Authors 

COVER PAGES AND MASTHEADS OF SOME ORIYA PERIODICALS 36 

INDEX FILES 

Index to the Writing Compilation (Hyperlinked to the books and articles) 

Notes for using the index 

Index to Periodical Content of the Files 

Index to Pre-1950 Oriya Science Books and Reference Works 

Chronological Index to Science Articles in Oriya 

Authorwise Index to Science Articles in Oriya 


Foreword 


“Science Writing in Oriya 1850-1950” is part of Vigyan Prasar’s attempt at documenting 
science communication efforts in different Indian languages. This project traces the beginning 
of popular science writing in Oriya, a rich language. The use of technical terms in science, 
topics covered by popular science writers, early magazines that carried popular science 
articles and representative popular science articles published in the past give an idea of the 
treatment of the subject and the style of the language. This monograph is a reference work 
and will serve as an inspiration for young communicators. Many of early magazines which 
published popular science articles are very rarely available and if no efforts are made for their 
preservation they would be lost forever. The arduous exercise undertaken in Oriya points out 
the state of scientific understanding and the strengths and weaknesses of the styles of 
presentation. 

Vigyan Parishad, Prayag, Allahabad, developed a two-volume work titled "Hindi Mein 
Vigyan Lekhan Ke Sau Varsh: 1850-1950" (Hundred Years of Science Writing in Hindi: 1850- 
1950) that has been published by Vigyan Prasar. Science Communicators’ Forum, Kolkata has 
researched the tune period 1818 to 1860 and the output has been published by The Asiatic 
Society, Kolkata. The task of documenting the popular science writing in Marathi has been 
taken up by Marathi Vidnyan Parishad, Mumbai. Eflbrts are being made to cover other Indian 
languages. 

Srujanika has been engaged in innovative science education and science popularisation 
work in Orissa for the past several years. The research for this monograph covers the period 
1850-1950. Besides popular science articles, Srujanika has also documented popular science 
books published in Oriya during the period. Some of the best known science writers and 
scholars were associated with the project. It is no wonder that the output of the project has 
come out as an important research document. It is not only a historical document but will also 
provide stimulus to present science writers in Oriya. The work will be important to science 
writers, linguists, historians, lexicographers and others. 


Er Anuj Sinha 
Director 
Vigyan Prasar 



Preface 


Science writing has always played a central role in Srujanika's science appreciation programmes. 
While generating articles on a wide range of scientific topics we have tried to keep in sight what was 
already in existence. This gave us an idea about the areas well covered and where coverage was 
sparse. It also brought to our notice the strengths and weaknesses of the styles of presentation used. 
And we tried to improve our own writings based on such findings. 

In the beginning, however, our familiarity was limited to the contemporary publications. We were 
exposed to a wider range of science writings when we undertook the task of preparing an "Annotated 
Bibliography of Popular Science Books in Oriya" around 1995 as a part of an NCSTC (Dept, of 
Science & Technology, Govt, of India, New Delhi) initiative. Although the work was limited to books 
only, it gave us an idea about the difficulty in locating old Oriya publications, especially those on 
science. Getting older periodicals was still harder and that held us back from going after the magazine 
articles. 

The idea of preparing a comprehensive compilation of science writings in Oriya was revived 
during the Vigyan Prasar seminar on "Science Popularisation through Indian Languages" in 
September 2003. By this time we had also initiated a programme of preserving early Oriya 
publications through digitization using a low-cost improvised setup. This had brought us into closer 
contact with the literary circles and with people/institutions holding such material. While preparing an 
inventory of such holdings, we started exploring their science content also. Our first digital archive, 
an electronic version of one of the most important Oriya publications - a legendary 7-volume 
9500-page lexicon titled Pumachandra Odia Bhashakosha, was released in August 2008. Among those 
present on the occasion was Dr. Subodh Mahanti who represented Vigyan Prasar and we agreed that 
the time had now come for taking up the compilation of science writings in Oriya. 

After further discussions and planning an initial meeting for the purpose was held at the residence 
of Prof. Gokulananda Mohapatra, the person who has contributed the most to popular science writing 
in Oriya, on November 18, 2007. A tentative plan of action was drawn up at the meeting and a 
committee to guide the work was formed. The actual work commenced in April 2008 with the full 
support of Vigyan Prasar. 

The task of collecting the articles still proved formidable. The publications were scattered among 
many individual and institutional holdings, where neither borrowing or photo-copying was possible. 
Convincing the holders to let us take digital images of the publications was not always easy and even 
where we got the permission, the process was slow with our improvised setup as it involved a lot of 
manual post-processing of the images. But it also had its rewards. Instead of copying only the science 
articles, we digitised the entire publications that became available to us. The collection, which is still 
being processed, will certainly have a lasting value. 

The original objective of preparing a compilation of the science writings has, however, reached a 
presentable stage and no major findings are likely to come up soon. Hence we are presenting the 
compilation in this electronic form, which can be updated with ease, for initial viewing and critical 
appraisal. Based on the feedback received, we will publish a printed version with only selected 
articles to be distributed along with the complete compilation on a CD-ROM in the near future. 

Needless-to-say the entire work has been a group effort. Not only the core group of Srujanika was 
totally immersed in this work, members of the advisory committee and numerous science writers, 
bibliophiles, literateurs, academicians and persons just interested had joined hands to get it moving. 
However, the support of Vigyan Prasar played a key role in making this whole thing happen. 

We have tried to list some of the more identifiable contributors to the work on the credit page, but 
certainly many more have been left out. We appreciate their contribution the most and it is to those 
unknown workers that we dedicate this compilation. 


Srujanika Team 



Credits and Acknowledgement 


Overall Co-ordination and Writeup 
Nikhil Mohan Pattnaik 

Logistics and Data Management 
Puspashree Pattnaik 

Material Collection and Digitization 
Jeeban Kumar Panda, Siva Prasad Patra 

Text Composition, Proof Correction and Preparation of the Final Compilation 
Padmaja Nandini Sahoo, Mili Mohanty, Sharati Mahanty, Sampad Mohapatra 


Material, Suggestions and Discussions 

Sri Aurobindo Pattanaik, Prof. Sasanta Kumar Panda, Smt. Sasanti Das, 

Sri Bauribandhu Pattnaik, Dr. Chitta Ranjan Mishra, Dr. Fanindra Shushan Nanda, 
Prof. Gouranga Charan Dash, Prof. Maheswar Mohanty, Prof. Prafulla Kumar Mohanty, 
Smt. Kama Kar, Dr. Subodh Mahanti, Prof. Sudarshan Acharya, 


Advisory Committe 

Prof. Gokulananda Mohapatra, Chairman 

Prof. Sasudev Kar, Prof. Nityananda Swain, Prof. Amulya Kumar Panda, Prof. Surya 
Narayan Sehera, Prof. Gadadhar Mishra, Prof. Gouranga Charan Dash, Dr. Nikhil 
Mohan Pattnaik, Sri Jeeban Kumar Panda, Sri Nachiketa Khamari Sharma, 

Smt. Puspashree Pattnaik (Convener). 


All-round Support 

Prof. Debendra Kumar Dash, Prof. Debi Prasanna Pattanayak, 
Sri Gopal Prasad Nanda, Prof. Jatindra Mohan Mohanty. 


Libraries Consulted 

Orissa State Archives, Orissa State Museum Library, Eastern Region Language 
Centre Library, Regional institute of Education Library, Utkal University Library 

(Bhubaneswar) 

Utkal Sahitya Samaj Library, The Samaja Library, Sigyan Prachar Samiti Library 

(Cuttack) 

Siswa-Tara Library (Baleswar), Dasarathi Pathagara (Nuagaon, Nayagarh) 

We most sincerely acknowledge the valuable contributions 
of aii these persons and institutions. 



Introduction 


Thinking generally, there seems to be an automatic connection between science and all things 
"modem". This link seems to extend to the field of literature also. If one examines the development of 
literature in various languages, one can find many direct and indirect contributions of science towards 
its growth. While the changes in educational and thought processes can be considered as indirect 
contributions, development of communication and printing can be seen as the direct ones. 

Literature in turn has also played its role in the growth of science, its biggest impact being in 
opening up of the mind to subtler aspects of life and nature. The growth of language facilitated the 
spreading of scientific facts and thoughts both among the scientists and the common people. This 
helped science in two ways - by enhancing interaction among the scientists and by bringing about a 
societal understanding about science. 

Thus it is necessary to be generally familiar with the modern phase literature in any language in 
order to appreciate the science-related writings in that language. 

Emergence of Modern Oriya Literature 

Like in any other language Oriya literature went through a long process of development to arrive at its 
modern period which is generally considered to have started during the second half of the nineteenth 
century. While it is not possible, nor necessary, to put an exact starting date for this, the year 1 866 can 
be considered to be a turning point. However, many developments, mostly political and social, that 
prepared the ground for the emergence of modern Oriya literature started around the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. 

A major factor in this process of evolution was an increased contact with western education and 
culture. This was brought about primarily by the British occupation of Orissa in 1803. The British rule 
facilitated the expansion of the activities of the Christian missionaries into Orissa from neighbouring 
Bengal. The missionaries had established a printing press in Serampore, Bengal, in 1797 which was 
acting as a hub for their preparation of religious literature in Indian languages. Fort William College 
of Calcutta, established in 1800, had programmes for helping the members of British administration in 
learning Indian languages including Oriya. 

With such facilities being available the zealous missionaries lost no time in bringing out Christian 
literature in Oriya. The first printed Oriya book brought out in 1809 was the New Testament. 
Interestingly the book that followed in 1811 was a "dictionary" titled, "A Vocabulary: Ooriya And 
English: For the use of students". However, it was more a collection of Oriya words with their 
pronunciations and meanings in English rather than a dictionary with conventional alphabetic 
arrangement. 

The Serampore Press continued producing other Oriya books, but these were primarily Christian 
religious literature. A need for educational texts soon arose with the establishment of English schools 
in Cuttack in 1822 and at other places soon after. Several such publications appeared between 1831 
and 1845, prominent among these being - Oriya Grammar (1831) and Oriya Dictionary in three 
volumes (1841-43), both by Amos Sutton (B. Niya Alankar being the co-compiler of the Oriya-Oriya 
dictionary). Sutton also authored "Padartha Bidyasara" - a textbook on natural sciences (Jada Bigyan) 
which was published in 1832. There were several other primers, readers and text books on history and 
geography during this period. 

The first printing press in Orissa was set up at Cuttack by the Missionaries. It helped in increasing 
the production activity in Oriya language. In addition to publishing the religious and school books the 
Mission Press undertook the printing of books by local authors. It also helped in the attempts to bring 
out periodicals like Gyanaruna (1849), Prabodha Chandrika (1856-58) and Arunodaya (1861-63) all 
these were published by the missionaries. The three magazines were rather short-lived to have any 
strong literary impact, but were important as experiments in the new area. 


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The year 1866 - a turning point 

The developments during the previous sixty years provided adequate facilities for education and 
communication for a new generation of Oriyas to try out their ideas in the literary and socio-cultural 
fields. A new sense of linguistic nationalism was also emerging among the Oriyas at this time. Two 
unrelated events of the period helped in expediting and intensifying the process to a great extent. 

The first was the devastating famine that ravished Orissa during 1865-66. Not only a large number 
of people perished, the suffering of the survivors was severe and continued for a long time as the 
British Government in Calcutta seemed to be ill-informed about the situation. The lower level 
Government workers, mostly from outside Orissa, had for various reasons neither assesed the 
situation correctly nor taken any timely remedial steps. Utkal Dipika (The Light of Utkal) the first 
weekly newspaper in Oriya was launched by Sri Gouri Shankar Ray on the 4th August 1866 in the 
middle of this great calamity. Dipika not only documented the plight of the drought-stricken Orissa in 
the most forceful manner, it also drew the attention of the British ruler to the neglect of Orissa in 
many other respects. Its impact was profound and reached all the way upto the British Parliament, 
which recognised the problems and initiated mechanisms for their redressal. The movement to seek 
help for the famine-stricken rallied all public-spirited Oriyas around Utkal Dipika and it provided a 
ready forum for their views on Oriya nationalistic issues. It also set in motion literary changes by 
stregthening prose as a powerful medium of writing. 

The second event during 1868-70 posed a threat to Oriya language itself. An attempt was made to 
portray Oriya as a dialect of Bengali without any claim to an independent existence. A proposal was 
floated to deny any recognition to Oriya and stop its usage as the language of text books. This 
movement was initiated by some Bengali employees of the British Government posted in Orissa and 
had no involvement of the Bengali literateurs. It was most likely not born out of linguistic pride but 
was motivated more by a desire to keep the jobs in Orissa and the publication trade in their control. 
The attack, however, was vicious and multipronged and created enough stirrings both in Orissa and 
Calcutta. This caused the educated Oriyas to rise in defence of the language which was done through 
the documentation of the richness of existing Oriya literature and through newer initiatives in the 
literary field. Utkal Dipika played a focal role in this defence too. 

In time, the immediate impacts of both the famine and the antiOriya movement passed. But the 
spirit of Oriya nationalism remained strong. While Utkal Dipika continued to be the major periodical, 
several other publications, varied both in approach, content and place of publication, were bom. The 
Orissa Printing Company, established in 1866 in Cuttack with its own press, overcame the teething 
troubles by 1868 and provided strong support to Oriya publishing activities over the years to come. 
All these developments established the modern phase of Oriya literature on a firm footing. 

Modern Oriya Literature: Facets and Characters 

Like in most languages one can find radical changes in the modern Oriya literature both in form and 
content as compared to its older periods. Early and medieval Oriya literature consisted mostly of 
various forms of poetrical writings: the kavyas, long and ornate narratives in verse that required high 
degree of mastery over the language to understand and appreciate; the epics, depiction of mythical 
lores in less intricate rhyme; and the lighter poems and lyrics. There were some notable pieces of 
writings in prose, but these were rather small in number. The older Oriya literary works used God 
and deities, myths, nature, kings and wars as their themes. Spiritual and religious sentiments as well as 
devotion to the deities and the rulers were the underlying sentiments for many of these works. The 
epics were written to be recited among the working people to arouse piety and righteous feelings. The 
lyrics were, however, the most popular and were sung to entertain and lighten a burdened life. 

Modern Oriya literature, in contrast, used prose as its medium of expression. Prose provided 
freedom for expressing intricate ideas in logical and analytical ways. Essays and short compositions 
became powerful vehicles for ideas and issues. Almost anyone could now express their ideas in 
writing as the emphasis shifted to the content rather than style. Even poetry - it did continue to exist 
and thrive - took on newer directions in its modern form. Kavyas and devotional lyrics too changed in 
form in the hands of the modern poets but retained its power to arouse the deeper human emotions. 
Other forms of writings like novel, drama, satire and short story also emerged slowly. 


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The contents of modern writings also changed. Gods, deities and emperors yielded their place to 
the common man. Writers focused on the happenings around them to create both fiction and 
philosophy. Newer areas of human knowledge entered the literary scene and students of these newer 
academic divisions started writing about their work for the public - both to inform and to seek popular 
support for their work. This is the point where science became a subject for literature. Initially 
established writers wrote about science and scientists. But in time students of science joined, and even 
overtook, them in this endeavour. As a result not only modem Oriya literature became broader and 
richer, science writing efforts grew into a recognised branch of literature. 

Three persons have been generally acknowledged for final transformation of Oriya literature into 
its modern form. They are: Fakir Mohan Senapati (1843-1918), Radhanath Rai (1848-1908) and 
Madhusudan Rao (1853-1912). Each one of them has made profound contribution in the form of 
writings, by introducing new ideas and styles, and through other activities which helped in the overall 
growth of Oriya literature. 

Radhanath Rai, refered to as Kabibara (poet supreme), continued the tradition of writing Kavyas. 
But these poetical works took a very different form in style, content and emotive depth as did his 
path-breaking prose writings. His major contribution was to free Oriya literature from the medieval 
prejudices and inject newer societal consciousness into it. The overall impact of all his work was so 
great that this period of Oriya literature is also refered to as the Radhanath era. 

Madhusudan Rao, also called the Bhaktakabi (devotional poet), was a teacher/educationist by 
profession, but also a poet and follower of Brahma way of life in practice. His subtle injection of 
liberal ideas through lucid prose and poetry aroused the readers' deeper feelings and also was very 
suitable for text books. In fact, the text books written by him dominated the school education scene, 
especially for the primary classes, and proved far more refreshing compared to the crudely translated 
texts being used till then. He also compiled useful manuals for teachers and was among the first ones 
to write science articles for the public. His literary works, both in form of prose and poetry, original as 
well as translations/adaptations, are important enough to place him among the creators of modern 
Oriya literature. 

Unlike Radhanath and Madusudan, Fakir Mohan Senapati was brought up and educated in the 
traditional way. Thus his exposure to western ideas and literature was minimal. This is reflected in his 
early writings which comprise translations of the epics in the traditional style and text books. One of 
his earliest works was Jibana Charita. It was a partial translation of Vidyasagar's adaptation of 
'Biographies' in English, and introduced the biographies of many scientists into Oriya literature. Also 
during this period he contributed much to the Oriya literature through the setting up a printing press, 
involvement with newspapers/magazines and through his active role in resisting the anti-Oriya 
language movement. Fakir Mohan's literary brilliance erupted late and this was reflected in his short 
stories, novels and autobiography - all of which were published during 1898 to 1918. His writings 
reflected the social realities around him and was marked by evolved development of characters and 
plots, while the narrative was lucid, folksy and witty. For all this he has been considered as the 
crowning architect in the modernisation of Oriya literature and is revered with the title of Byasakabi - 
the learned poet. 

Two other persons - Gowri Shankar Ray and Madhusudan Das - have also played important roles 
in the emergence and growth of modern oriya literature. Gouri Shankar - Karmabira (the heroic 
worker) - was deeply involved with the establishment and management of the first non-missionary- 
owned printing press and publishing house, the Cuttack Printing Company, in 1864. This and the 
publication of Utkal Dipika, which he edited and managed, facilitated the emergence of new writers 
and also helped in the development of Oriya prose writings, the vehicle for any modern literature. 
Mahusudan Das has been considered the father of modern Orissa for his far-reaching social and 
political activities. The spirit of Oriya nationalism that he kindled and stoked, worked as a guiding 
force for the nascent modern Oriya literature and sustained it in its growing years. 

It is on this background that science entered the social, educational and literary fields of Orissa and 
the growth of science writing and that of modem Oriya literature went hand in hand. 


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Oriya Periodicals 

Regular publications in form of newspapers and magazines have proved essential for the growth of 
language and literaure. Periodicals required compositions in prose as it was the most suitable for the 
expression of wide ranging ideas and facts. Quick publication of the periodicals also helped in 
exposing the writings to quick scrutiny and this provided scope for fast refinement and overall 
improvement. This applied to Oriya also and it is no coincidence that the periodicals and literature 
progressed together. 

The first Oriya magazine was a hand-written news-sheet - Kujibara Patra. This was being brought 
out by Mahanta Sadhu Sundar Das (Sundari Babaji) of Kujibara Math during the 1830's. However no 
copies of this are now available to be seen. 

With increased printing facilities, the missionaries started the publication of a magazine - 
Gyanaruna - in 1849. This first printed Oriya magazine was, however, very short-lived and no copies 
of it have survived. Gyanaruna was followed by a second printed magazine - Prabodha Chandrika 
(1856-58) - which continued somewhat longer and attempted to address the general public by 
disavowing any religious objectives. Its first editorial stated that the magazine will not have any 
religious objectives but would help educate the natives (Oriyas) so that they can compete for the 
Government jobs so far held by outsiders. During the three years of publication it tried to live upto its 
claim by publishing articles of general interest including some relating to science. A few copies of 
Prabodha Chandrika have survived in a private collection, but the contents of the first volume are 
available in a reprinted form. After the closure of Prabodh Chandrika another attempt at magazine 
publication was made by the missionaries in 1861. The magazine Arunodaya continued publication 
for about three years, but not much is known about its contents as all copies of it have disappeared. 
These first Oriya magazines were rather shortlived to have any literary impact, but proved valuable as 
path-breaking experiments. 

Launching of Utkal Dipika in 1866 brought about a new era in magazine publication. This was 
edited and managed by Gowri Shankar Ray, a socially active Oriya person and had the backing of the 
community. It also took up issues of regional importance and this gave it a wide reader base. Utkal 
Dipika was more of a newspaper rather than a magazine and was published on a weekly basis. It was 
first printed by lithography on stone plates but was machine printed after about a year and half. In 
addition to publishing the news - local, as collected from its own sources and "global" as gleamed 
from other publications, it also spared space for longer commentary on various subjects of interest. 
This helped in some reports and articles on science being published in it. 

Dipika was soon followed by the publication of Bodhadayini (named later as Baleswar Sambad 
Bahika) in 1868 from Baleswar. It followed Utkal Dipika closely in contents and style. Many other 
periodicals, mostly weeklies in newspaper style, started publishing from Cuttack as well as some other 
places in Orissa. Some of these had specific purpose in mind while others were more general. Most of 
these newer publications did not continue for long, but some like the Utkal Putra (1873) had a strong 
impact. Utkal Dipika and Baleswar Sambad Bahika, however, maintained steady publication which 
continued well into the nineteenth century. These two were joined in 1889 by another important 
periodical - Sambalpur Hiteishini - from Bamanda State in western Orissa and made significant 
impact in the social and literary spheres. 

When the newspaper publication activities continued steadily, attempt was made to publish a 
magazine in the conventional sense. The monthly literary magazine Utkal Darpan appeared from 
Baleswar in 1873 as a result and continued only for two years in this form. Even during its short life 
span it provided the much needed space for quality prose - both fiction and philosophy. It is in the 
pages of Utkal Darpan that the first science articles of reasonable length and depth were published. 

Other literary magazines that followed Utkal Darpan before the turn of the century were Utkal 
Madhupa (1878), Pradeepa (1885), Asha (1888), Utkal Prabha (1891), Indradhanu (1893), Bijuli 
(1893) and Utkal Sahitya (1897). Except for the last one all others folded up after only a few issues, 
but each of these had played important roles in different ways during their publication. 


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Publication of Utkal Sahitya marked a new era in magazine publishing much like what Utkal 
Dipika had done for newspapers. Utkal Sahitya was edited by Viswanath Kar, a person deeply 
commited to literature and society, and was supported by a circle of like-minded persons who worked 
hard to sustain the magazine. In the opening editorial Utkal Sahitya lamented the short life of its 
predecessors and stressed the pressing need for a literary magazine. It stated that it will try its best to 
present the best from the older literature and also the advanced concepts and thoughts of the modern 
era with the help of its learned contributors . It included science specifically as an area where articles 
will be the most welcome. In keeping with its objectives a biography of Benjamin Franklin was 
featured in its first issue. In time it carried science articles on a regular basis and often explored the 
philosophical and social aspects of science through special articles. 

Utkal Sahitya brought in a large degree of maturity in magazine publishing both in the way of 
content and production. This encouraged others to start new magazines with specific clientale and 
philosophy in mind. Some of the more important new general publications were Utkal Madhupa 
(Bamanda, 1900), Mukura (1906), Satyabadi (1915), Sahakara (1919), Naba Bharat (1934), Dagaro 
(1936), Sankha (1945), Chaturanga (1946). While Utkal Sahitya continued regular publication till 
about 1940, Satyabadi, which played a valuable role in education and national movement, closed by 
1919, Mukura and Sahakara published for about 25 and 30 years respectively. Naba Bharat, Sankha 
and Chaturanga all ceased publication by 1950. Dagaro continued in publication beyond the 1950's 
along with several newer magazines which came into existence around 1950 as well as with newer 
forms of some older discontinued ones. Two periodicals - Samaja (1919) and Prajatantra (1930) - 
which started as weeklies are still in publication as daily newspapers. There were many other 
magazines appearing from various parts of Orissa which did not survive for long, but had useful life 
nevertheless. 

During this period a few magazines were published specifically for children. The major ones of 
these were Prabhata (1909), Panchamruta (1920), Jahnamamu (1932). There were also specialised 
magazines for women, co-operative movement, health and science. In addition, many magazines had 
dedicated pages for specific target subjects. A magazine Bigy’an Darpan, devoted solely to science 
writings in Oriya, was published between 1880 and 1883 from Calcutta. Although no copy of this 
magazine has been seen, reviews of the magazine and an article reprinted from it have appeared in 
other contemporary periodicals. A magazine on health and medical subjects - Utkal Chikitsaka - was 
published in 1894 by Ramakrushna Sahu, a medical practioner trained at the Cuttack Medical School, 
and a regular writer on health matters. Another magazine Alochana was published for a short time 
during 1900 from Bamanda and was devoted exclusively to discussions on science and agriculture. It 
was started to publish primarily the discussions at a forum - Alochana Sabha - in Bamanda. No copies 
of Utkal Chikitsaka or Alochana are available now. 

It can be seen from the foregoing that a succession of magazines helped sustain the growth of 
Oriya literature in its modem form. These encouraged the publication of articles on newer subjects 
and science writing benefited immensely from this. 

Table 1 lists some important Oriya periodicals before 1950 along with the available details. Cover 
pages and mastheads of some of these periodicals are reproduced in the pages following the tables. 

Science Books in Oriya 

One of the first Oriya books to be printed was a dictionary or more accurately, a book of Oriya words 
with their English equivalents. Published in 1811, this book - "A Vocabulary Ooriya And English For 
the use of students" by Mohunpersaud Takoor - presented the words under different subject headings. 
Interestingly, several of the subjects covered were science-related. It also contained sections on plants 
and materia medica which gave the scientific names of a number of plants. This trend of listing the 
botanical names in Oriya dictionaries continued through the 1930's. 

The Oriya books published during 1811 to 1830 were mostly religious books and a few text books 
of general reader type. The first science text book Padarthabidya Sara (Essence of Physical Sciences) 
by Amos Sutton appeared in 1830 and was in the form of questions and answers. A few other similar 
books, written or translated from English/Bengali mostly by the missionaries and their Oriya speaking 


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associates, were published through the 1870's for use in the schools. Fakir Mohan Senapati's Jeeban 
Charita (Life Stories) was published in 1866 also to be used as a general reader in schools. This book 
was a part translation of Eshwara Chandra Vidyasagar's Bengali adaptation (1849) of Chambers' 
"Biography". Interestingly, almost all the biographies that appeared in the Oriya version were of 
scientists, including Copernicus, Galileo, Herschel, Newton and Linnaeus. 

Science-related books published during the next 80 years or so, till the late 1940's, were either text 
books or books on health/medical matters and agriculture/animal husbandry. These were designed to 
be used as supplementary reading by the students or as reference by the general public and field 
workers. The text books included titles on physical science, animal and plant science, health and 
hygiene and agriculture. Some of the notable general books were Tika Deba Bisayaka Bidhana (John 
Short, 1867, Vaccination Procedures), Sishupalana O Sishusiksha (Ramakrushna Sahu, 1885, 
Childcare and Child Education), Swasthya Sadhana (Shyamasundar Pattnaik, 1894, Health 
Resources), Oushadha Bhandar (Gopabandhu Nayak, 1916, Medicine Store), Krushaka Bandhu 
(Madanmohan Pradhan, 1920, Farmers' Friend), Basanta (Banabihari Pattnaik, 1929, Small Pox), 
Udvida Bigyan (Aram Patra, 1935, Plant Science), Maleria (Gopalchandra Pattnaik, 1941, Malaria). 
The books on health-related subjects by Banabihari Pattnaik and Gopalchandra Pattnaik, both doctors, 
were written in a very readable style while keeping the information content high. Nilamani 
Bidyaratna, the editor of Sambalpur Hiteishini, Utkal Madhupa and later of Utkal Dipika , wrote 
several books on the treatments for cholera, small pox, fever, cattle diseases, and snake bites, between 
1895 and 1915. 

There were a few books which were written purely as 'popular science' during this period. These 
were Prakruti (Sachidananda Deb, 1911, Nature), Brusti Bigyan (Sachchidananda Deb, 1915, 
Meteorology), Samanta Chandrasekhar (Chandrasekhar Mishra, 1932, Biography of Samanta 
Chandrasekhar), E Jugara Asura (Prasad, 1947, Demon of this Era), Bigyan Bismaya (Gokulananda 
Mohapatra, 1949, Wonders of Science), Bigymi Krutittwa (Gokulananda Mohapatra, 1949, 
Achievements of Science), Pilanka Kahinki (2 vol., Godabarisha Mishra, -1950, Children's Questions). 

Prakruti was a khanda-kavya (short verse) describing the evolution of the physical and the living 
Universe, while Brusti Bigyan was meant to provide a background for the data gathered at the author's 
own meteorological observatory. Samanta Chandrasekhar was the first original biography of a 
scientist, that too one from Orissa itself (Samanta Chandrasekhar or Pathani Samanta (1835-1904) 
was a naked-eye astronomer noted for his ephemerical observations and calculations of high accuracy 
and the author of Siddhanta Daipan (1899)). The biography was even more notable as it described the 
Samanta's work in much detail and also explained his Sanskrit compositions in easily understandable 
Oriya. E jugara Asura describes the nuclear bomb and the devastation caused by it in form of a story. 
Godabarisha Mishra, a noted educationist and socio-political activist, wrote two science fiction books 
- the first in Oriya - around 1950 based on some English ones. These were Ghatantara (A Change of 
Body, inspired by 'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde') and Nirbasita (The Banished). He also wrote two small 
volumes composed of questions and answers relating to science for children under the title Pilanka 
Kahinki. Gokulananda Mohapatra's two books of this period were compilations of his articles 
published in various magazines on various aspects of contemporary science and set the trend for 
science writing in the 1950's. 

Works of Reference 

Compilation of an encyclopedia in Oriya was not attempted seriously till the 1930's. The first such 
compilation was done by Lala Madhab Lai and the result was his Bibidha Sangraha (Miscellaneous 
Collections). This was followed by similar works by Bhagirathi Mohapatra ( Ratnakosha ba Bruhat 
Bibidha Sangraha, 1935), Lala Nagendra Kumar Roy ( Bibidha Ratna Sangraha) and Akshaya Kumar 
Chakrabarti ( Bibidha Sara Sangraha ). These were intended to be books of general knowledge and 
included interesting information relating to science. 

Publication of Purnachandra Odia Bhashakosa was started also during the 1930's. This was a 
comprehensive lexicon (7 volumes, -9500 royal quarto pages, 1931-1940) compiled by Gopal 
Chandra Praharaj and contained many short explanations of important terms as well as several 


- 11 - 



encyclopedic articles running into many pages. Many such writeups relating to science are found in 
the Bhashakosha including a 16-page article on nakshatra (asterisms). It also contained short 
descriptions of about 1300 plants including their scientific names and medicinal usage. 

Balakrushna Kar, already involved with the publication of magazines like Sahakar and children's 
magazine Jahnamamu, conceived the idea of a multi- volume encyclopedia keeping children in mind. 
Accordingly, he planned to make each volume self-sufficient and to be based on a single subject. Of 
the 8 volumes proposed, three were to be on science subjects like the living world, the Universe/ 
creation and wonders of science. The first volume on the living world came out in 1941 and was 
followed by the volume on world history (1943). Unfortunately, the publication could not continue as 
planned and the work remained incomplete after the publication of the volume on the Universe in 
1957. However, the volumes published were well received for their simple language, lucid 
presentation and numerous illustrations many of which were in colour. 

Table 2 gives the details of the pre-1950 science books in Oriya. The full contents of the available 
books or excerpts from the works of reference are included in the compilation either as scanned 
originals or recomposed text. 

Science Articles in Oriya Periodicals 

The earliest science articles found in this search of Oriya literature of the modern period dates back to 
1856. The two articles in the magazine Prabodha Chandrika were on the subjects of respiration and 
blood circulation and were of moderate length (~450 words). These were followed by a book of 
biographies, Fakir Mohan Senapati's Jeeban Charita, which presented sketches of life and work of 
several scientists like Copernicus, Galileo, Herschel, Newton and Linnaeus. The biographies of 1000 
to 2000 words were, however, translations from Bengali version of the original writings in English. 
Hence these were important more from a literary point of view - using the still-evolving Oriya prose 
as a vehicle for modem topics words for which did not even exist in the language. 

Most of the other science writings found over the next 40 years were short pieces suitable for 
newspapers. These were reports relating to health and disease issues, celestial events like the eclipses, 
reviews of science books and magazines and other developments that the editors found interesting. 
Some examples of the last were: several reports on the proposal to establish a 'science association' 
(Bigyan Sabha) by Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar, reports on the establishment of a science institution in 
Bangalore by the Tatas, report on Kashmir Maharaja's initiative to have science books translated into 
Sanskrit, King of Siam inviting foreign astronomers to observe an eclipse as the state's guests, what 
Darwin says..., boy blinded from viewing eclipse with naked eye. 

Some of the short reports in the newspapers gave scientific explanations of some happenings. For 
example, there was a report of some young brides falling into the wells while drawing water. In 
addition to mentioning that the wells did not have adequate safety walls etc., the report explains that 
the young brides usually wear a lot of ornaments on the upper body which shifts the 'centre of gravity' 
of the person upward and makes them prone to toppling over while bending down to draw water. 
Another article explains, in a story form, how oil can prevent boiling over of dal while being cooked 
by lowering the 'surface tension'. 

The newspapers also carried some longer articles; some as purely informative, while others 
provided background for discussion. Some of the latter were: 'Medical sciences' (1869) presents a 
historical development of human maladies and their treatments; 'Science education' (1871) discusses 
how science has empowered the western world through new discoveries and hence the importance of 
our learning science; 'Seeing star and moon during the day' (1879) explains the circumstances under 
which planet venus might be visible before sunset or after sunrise as a 'star' and decries the 
unnecessary fear of seeing it; 'Science and its benefits' (1880) and 'Lack of scientific discussions' 
(1881) elaborates on the value of scientific discoveries and comments on our habit of not being 
inquisitive which hinders scientific progress; 'Is this the comet of Mahabharat?' (1882); 'Eclipse 
musing' (1896) explains the eclipses and questions the rituals like fasting observed by our people; 
'Food habits and human life' (1998) explores how food affects our life. 


- 12 - 


The newspapers also provided a forum for the readers to seek information and raise issues. An 
interesting example of this was the query by a reader in 1882 whether the forthcoming transit of venus 
would be visible from Orissa. This was answered in the negative by an astrologer who did the 
computation using Samanta Chandrasekhar's ephemerides. 

It should also be noted that many articles were simply sensational and had no verifiable basis. 
Some of these related to the curing of dreaded diseases like leprosy, small pox and cholera or 
conditions like snake and dog bites. A report was published even on the method of bringing the dead 
back to life. Reports of imaginary diseases and phenomena also found their way into the news pages. 

Literary magazines provided scope for longer and more serious articles. But as mentioned earlier 
such magazines in Oriya were few and transient before 1897. Still the magazines Utkal Darpan 
(1873), Utkal Madupa (1879) and Pradeepa (1885) carried science articles regularly during their 
short existence. These articles covered areas like physical aspects of science like the celestial bodies 
and phenomena, raised questions like the possibility of life on other planets and explored 
philosophical aspects like science and religion, method of science (observation and experimentation). 

Publication of Utkal Sahitya in 1897 provided a more stable platform for science articles. Of the 
many new magazines that followed the following devoted regular space for science: Utkal Madhupa 
(Bamanda, 1900), Mukura (1906), Satyabadi (1915), Sahakar (1921), Baruni (1925), Bhanja 
Pradeepa (1931), Naba Bharat (1934), Sankha (1945) and Chaturanga (1946). This encouraged 
newer and specialised writers to contribute and also widened the range of topics covered. The 
children's magazines in Oriya devoted a significant portion of their pages to science. Thus many 
interesting science articles are found in such magazines, e.g., Prabhata (1909), Panchamruta (1920) 
and Jahnamamu (1932). 

The magazine articles continued the earlier trend of publishing both informative and philosophical 
writings. While most were entertaining and stimulating, some of the latter initiated strong debates 
among the readers. Mohini Mohan Senapati's article titled, 'Aspirations and Objectives of the Present 
Era' (1905) discussed the origins of religion to anthropomorphism and the reluctance of man to 
renounce it. He explored the reasons as to why the dependence on religion was not suitable for the 
present era and why man should follow the path of nature and science. The article stirred up a debate 
between the rationalists and traditionalists in the pages of the magazine. Other articles like 'Faith in 
the Realm of Science', 'Science and Literature', 'Science and Religion' which tried to explore 
complementary and contrasting features of science and other subjects. 

There were also long articles serialised over months, or even years. Krushna Prasad Choudhury's 
series on 'Self-reliance' presented examples from around the world about individuals who have made 
a mark through perseverance. Three of these articles (1909) dealt with scientists and their endeavours 
which led to successful industries. Biraj Mohan Senapati started writing on the plant sciences in 1922 
and continued with a long series on agriculture and cropping practices. Ratnakar Pati's series on the 
theory of evolution was a comprehensive treatment of the subject and continued from 1924 to 1930. 
Starting in 1934 Banshidhar Samantaray wrote many articles on different aspects of botany and on 
general science and a long series on genetics. 

In contrast to such long serieses all magazines carried sections on science titbits and short articles 
in children's section. The titbits were generally pieces of interesting information or reports on new 
findings and phenomena. However, these also carried many unsubstantiated sensational reports. 

Most areas of science were covered by Oriya science writings. Among the major science articles 
collected, there was a preponderance of writings on the celestial events and bodies. This group was 
followed by the articles on plant sciences and health-related subjects. Even the subject of eugenics 
had caught the writers' fancy with views on both sides. 

A database of all the writings on science in Oriya and their full text are provided in this 
compilation. Selected important and representative articles are summarised in table 3 and some 
statistics about the articles in table 5. 


- 13 - 


The Writers of Oriya Science Articles 

The early writers of science article in Oriya were the established literateurs of the period. The earliest 
identifiable author was Fakir Mohan Senapati, one of the founders of modern Oriya literature, who 
wrote a series of biographies of scientists in the book Jeeban Charita (1866). Most of the writings that 
followed were anonymous, a practice that was common in the field of Oriya literature. Many 
anonymous articles were found in most magazines even at later stages. But these were mostly shorter 
pieces which were contributed mostly by the editorial staff. Madusudan Rao, another founder of 
modern Oriya literature, wrote several science articles for Utkal Darpan in 1873. Fakir Mohan wrote 
other articles like the Sun, the Universe and Comet for Baleswar Sambad Bahika between 1875 and 
1881. After Utkal Darpan ceased publication, most of Madhusudan's science writings were published 
in his books and the major articles were part of Prabandha Mala (1880/1886/1898). Other articles 
written most likely during the 1880's and 1890's formed part of the books Balabodha, Shishubodha, 
Sahitya Kushuma and Sahitya Prasanga. 

Science writers active from the late 1890's till about 1910 were Jalandhar Deb, Shyam Sundar 
Nanda, Sachidananda Deb, Mrutyunjaya Rath, Tarini Charan Rath, Mohini Mohan Senapati, 
Nilakantha Das, Krushna Prasad Choudhury, Sashibhushan Ray and Gopal Chandra Praharaj who 
were all well known essayists. They were all better known for their contributions to other areas of 
Oriya literature and served well to introduce science writing into Oriya literature. Jalandhar Deb and 
Sachchidanand Deb were from the ruling family of Bamanda State which had a strong literary 
tradition. Sachchidanand had a strong interest in science and had set up astronomical and 
meteorological observatories. Under their rule the state had adapted many modern technologies, 
including the setting up of a printing press. 

During the first decade of the twentieth century teachers like Madhusudan Dash and Jagannath 
Tripathy took up science writing. The latter wrote in an entertaining manner on many different topics 
and was active till the 1930's. In 1909 he discussed the problem of scientific terminology 
( paribhasha ) in Oriya language. Shyam Sundar Sathia, an avid photographer, wrote a long and 
comprehensive series of articles on photography. Gangadhar Meher, a well-known poet whose work is 
noted for sensitive reflection of nature, contributed a poem on the the life process of plants ( Tarubara , 
1899) and another on the moon and stars (1914). Meher wrote numerous poems on the raising of 
various crops which were popular among the village folk. 

By the second decade of the twentieth century Oriya persons with higher education in science and 
other fields started teaching in the Ravenshaw College, Cuttack, and took up other jobs in the 
Government. Several of them tried writing on science for Oriya magazines. In 1913 Pranakrushna 
Parija, a noted Botanist who went on to be first Vice-Chancellor of the Utkal University, started 
writing on a wide range of subjects. Although he wrote on botany topics later, his first writings were 
related to astronomy. Fie also wrote articles like 'Science in Everyday Life" and "Eugenics". Fie was 
joined by college teachers and professionals like Sachchidananda Ray, later Principal of Ravenshaw 
College; Chintamani Acharya, later Vice-Chancellor of Utkal University; Nilakantha Das and 
Godabarisha Mishra, both educationists at the Satyabadi School and socio-political workers; 
Banabihari Pattnaik, doctor and medical professor. 

Other college teachers and professionals who wrote during the 1920's to early 1940's were 
Gurucharan Mohanty (Chemistry), Agani Das (Teacher), Shyamachandra Tripathy (Physics), Isac 
Santra (Medicine), Prasanna Kumar Das, Biraj Mohan Senapati (Agriculture) and Ratnakar Pati 
(Philosophy), Haribandhu Mohanty (Physics), Basant Kumar Nanda (Doctor), Radhacharan Panda 
(Doctor), Jagat Mohan Sen (Teacher), Banshidhar Samantaray (Botany) and Basant Kumar Behura 
(Zoology). During 1946-47 two new writers joined the field - Gokulananda Mohapatra (Chemistry) 
and Gadadhar Mishra (Botany) - who proved to be very prolific and remained active into the 
twentyfirst century. They were also involved in organisational activities relating to science writing and 
in the preparation of glossaries of scientific and technical terminology. 

Available details about these writers are summarised in table 4. 


- 14 - 


Oriya Science Articles - A Statistical View (Table 5) 

Examination of the collected science articles in Oriya between 1850 and 1950 shows that about 100 
persons contributed these. Interestingly, about half (53) of the 100 authors published only one article 
each and 30 authors published 2 to 5 articles each. Thus of the 361 articles with identifiable authors 
226 were written by the remaining 17 authors. Seven authors contributed ten or more articles each 
accounting for a total of 129 articles. Bansidhar Samantaray had the highest number of articles (39 
over 20 years) and was followed by Gokulananda Mohapatra (26 in 5 years). The latter, however, 
continued his writing over the next fifty years with an astounding productivity. 

Several persons, although credited with only a small number of articles, have contributed 
significantly in their editorial capacities of various magazines. Some of them were Nilamani 
Bidyaratna ( Utkal Madhupa), Agani Das ( Panchamruta ) and Chintamani Acharya ( Panchamruta , 
Jhankar), Balakrushna Kar ( Jahnamamu , Sahakar ). 

Supporting Activities 

Science writing activity reached a regular phase by 1920 and a need was felt for interaction among the 
writers as well as between the writers and the public. An organisation named Orissa Science 
Association was formed in November 1921 in Cuttack. The membership was by subscription and was 
solicited by open advertisement. The first secretary of the association was Biraj Mohan Senapati, an 
agricultural scientist and a prolific writer on farming. 

The activities of the association included "Demonstration lectures every Saturday evening in the 
Town Hall" as was advertised in the press. A news report on one of the meetings mentions a 
discussion on the use of green manure in paddy cultivation. Another meeting held a demonstration on 
soap making and offered guidance to anyone interested in taking it up as a cottage industry. The 
programme for its annual function was to be held at the Ravenshaw College. The meeting there would 
be followed by demonstrations of scientific instruments in the botany, physics and chemistry 
laboratories and by lecture with magic lantern slides. 

The Association probably did not continue for long as no news of its activities are found later. 
Some announcements and reports on the Association are given in the compilation which can be 
accessed by clicking here. 

By late 1940's science writing in Oriya had reached a degree of maturity and the number of writers 
had grown significantly. The writers of that time were mostly college professors and professionals 
who came in close contact with each other. Some of the more active writers started planning for an 
organised forum for their activity. An association by the name "Utkal Bigyan Parishad" was proposed 
in 1948, but it never came into formal existence. A second attempt by some professors of the 
Ravenshaw College and the Cuttack Medical College resulted in the formation of "Bigyan Prachar 
Samiti" in Cuttack on the 7th August 1949. The group met regularly to read and discuss their articles 
and held symposia on various subjects the proceedings of which were published in book form. The 
publication activities of the Samiti gathered momentum during the 1950's and hence is outside the 
purview of this compilation. The Samiti is still active today after sixty years of its formation. 

Technical terms in Oriya 

Writings on science topics started appearing when prose writing in Oriya was still very young. Thus 
the science writers had to face the compositional problems as faced in general writings. In addition, 
they had to search for the appropriate ter ms to convey the science concepts which were entirely new 
and foreign to the language. While many English scientific terms were adapted as such or with slight 
modifications, newer ones were also coined. The process was, however, highly dependent on the 
background of the individual writers and there was little scope for standardisation. 

Attempts were made in the 1920's to include glossaries of the new/adapted terms used in the 
articles. But this was followed in very few cases. The problem was not severe as long as the number 
of writers was small and most subjects were dealt by single authors. Contusing situations arose as the 
number of science writers grew and newer writers had difficulty in keeping track of all other writings. 
Increased interaction among the writers and the introduction of Oriya language science text books 
during the 1 940's helped in the process of standardisation. 


- 15 - 


Summing up 

The present attempt towards locating and compiling science writings in Oriya language between 1850 
and 1950 yielded 765 articles contributed by about 100 authors. These covered a wide range with 
respect to length, content and style. The writings were distributed among various periodicals (672 
articles), collected works (35), and two works of reference - Bhashakosha and Ratnakosha (58). All 
these articles have been included in this electronic compilation along with a comprehensive database/ 
index in Oriya which hyper-links each record to the actual recomposed article in full. 

In addition to the articles, 52 science books and 3 works of reference with significant science 
content were also published during the period under study. Digital copies of all the available books 
have been included in the compilation along with selected pages/entries of the reference books. 

Summary of the books and 80 selected articles is given in tables 2 and 3. Table 4 presents the 
available information about the authors, which have been very hard to gather and large gaps still exist 
that need to be filled up in future. Some statistical highlights of the compilation are given in table 5. 
These include periodical-wise, length-wise, period-wise and author-wise distribution of the articles. 

For the curious, the article compilation, not including the books, spans about 6,00,000 words, with 
numerous illustrations and several tables. 

IMPORTANT END NOTE 

This compilation is based on all the periodicals that could be located. Although most of the major 
magazines have been found, gaps exist in a number of places. Some of the magazines not seen are less 
likely to have carried science writings because of their specialised nature and literary/religious 
emphasis. It is estimated that at least 80% of the likely sources for science articles have been covered 
in this study. We propose to carry on the search and bring out updates when significant new findings 
are made. 

In view of the difficulty faced in finding old Oriya periodicals and books, we have digitised all the 
copies that came to our hands. Thus a very valuable collection is now available to the students of 
Oriya literature as a byproduct of this compilation. 


REFERENCES 

General Background, Notes on Periodicals and Books 

01. Odia Bhashacharcha'ra Parampara, Gaganendranath Dash, The Institute of Oriya Studies, 

Cuttack, 1983 

02. Adhunika Odia Sahityara Samkhipta Parichaya, Brundabanchandra Acharya, 1974, 1977. 

03. Adhunika Odia Sahityara Bhittibhumi, Natabara Samantaray, Friends' Publishers, Cuttack, 1964. 

04. Odia Sahitya: Bikashara Prusthabhumi, Natabara Samantaray, G Samantaray, Bhubaneswar, 1979 

05. Adhunika Odia Sahitya, Janaki Ballabh Mohanty, Grantha Mandir, Cuttack, 1963, 1971. 

06. Odia Sahityara Itihasa, Pathani Pattnaik, Nalanda, Cuttack, 1978. 

07. Adhunika Odia Gadyasahitya (1811-1920), Srinibas Mishra, Vidyapuri, Cuttack, 1978, 1995. 

08. Odia Sahityara Itihasa, Bauribandhu Kar, Friends' Publishers, Cuttack, 3rd Ed., 2004. 

09. Odia Patra Patrika Sahitya, Bansidhar Mohanty, Konarka, No.49, pp. 77-84, 1982. 

10. Odia Prakashana O Prasaranara Itihasa, Sridhar Mohapatra Sharma, Grantha Mandir, 1986. 

11. Sambada Patra'ru Odisha'ra Katha, Sudhakar Pattnaik, Grantha Mandir, Cuttack, 1972. 

12. Odishara Bikashare Patra Patrikar Pravab, Gopal Chandra Mishra, J. Mishra, Cuttack, 1979. 

13. Odisha'ra Patrapatrika O Adyaprakashita Pustaka, Pathani Pattnaik, Orissa Sahitya Akademi, 

Bhubaneswar, 1982. 


- 16 - 



Science Writing in Oriya Language 

14. Odia Bigyana Sahitya, Gokulananda Mohapatra, Dagaro, 20(1), 13-16 (1956-57). 

15. Odia Bh ash are Baigyanika Tatha Teknologiya Sahitya, Gokulananda Mohapatra, Orissa Sahitya 

Akademi, Bhubaneswar, 1982. 

16. Gat a Pachishabarsha Madhyare Rachita Baigyanika Sahitya: Eka Samikhya, Debakanta Mishra, 

Konarka, No. 49, pp. 37-60, 1982. 

17. Odia Bhashare Bigata Ardhasatabdira Bigyan-Sahitya, Snigdha Pattnaik, Bigyanaloka, pp.1-4, 

May- June 1997. 

18. Odia Bigyan Sahityara Bikasa, Kulamani Samal, Orissa Bigyan Lekhaka Samukhya 

(Bhubaneswar) Smaranika, pp.7-11, 2002. 


Biographical 

19. Odishara Bigyana Lekhaka, Bigyan Prachar Samiti, Cuttack, 1997. 

20. Odia Lekhaka Parichaya [Adhunika Bhaga, 1850 Masiha Parabarti] , Orissa Sahitya Akademi, 

Bhubaneswar, 2004. 

21. Odia Charita Kosha, Vol. 1., Nagendra Nath Mohanty, Pratima Nath Trust, New Delhi, 2005. 

Vol. 2 & 3, Nagendra Nath Mohanty, (In Press). 


Reprints and Compilations 

22. Atharasha Chhasathi (Utkala Dipika) , Bansidhar Mohanty, Ed., Friends' Publisher, Cuttack, 1978. 

23. Prabodha Chandrika (1856), Bansidhar Mohanty, Comp., Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, 1984. 

24. Odishara Prathama Sahityapatra: Utkal Darpan, Arabinda Giri, Ed., Pragati Utkal Sangha, 

Rourkela, 2007. 

25. Unabinsha Satakara Duiti Bismruta Sahityapatra, Sudarshana Acharya, Ed., Pragati Utkal 

Sangha, Rourkela, 2009. 

26. Prathama Odia Sishupatrika Pravata O Reba Roy, Maheswar Mohanty, Ed., Sishu Sahitya 

Lekhaka Sammelan, Cuttack, 2009. 

27. Bhaktakabi Madhusudan Granthabali, Gayatri Prakashani, Cuttack, 1996, 2008 

28. Fakir Mohan Granthabali, Vol. 3, Krushnacharan Behera, Debendra Kumar Dash, Ed., 

Grantha Mandir, Cuttack, 2008. 

29. Odia Bhasha Sadhana Vol.l, E-Bhashakosha, Electronic Version of Pumachandra Odia 

Bhashakosha (1931-1940), Srujanika, Bhubaneswar, 2006. 

30. Odia Bhasha Sadhana Vol. 3, Electronic Compilation of Oriya Dictionaries 1811-1942, Srujanika, 

Bhubaneswar, 2009. 


- 17 - 



TABLE 1 

SOME IMPORTANT ORIYA PERIODICALS IN PUBLICATION BEFORE 1950 


SI. Title Started 

01. Kujibara Patra 1830's 

02. Gyananma 1849 

03. Prabodha Chandrika 1856 

04 . Arunodaya 1861 

05. Utkal Dipika 1866 

06. Baleswar Sambad Bahika 1868 

(Initially published as Bodhadayini 
O Baleswar Sambad Bahika) 

07. Utkal Darpan 1873 

08. Utkal Putra 1873 

09. Bideshi 1873 

10. Utkal Madhupa 1878 

11. Mayurbhanja 1879 

12. Purasottam Patrika 1882 

13. Taraka 1883 

14. Sebaka 1883 

15. Samskaraka 1884 

16. Pradeepa 1885 

17. Shikshabandhu 1885 

18. Odia O Naba Sambada [incorporating 1888 
Naba Sambada (1887), Odia (1887)] 

19. Asha 1888 

20. Sambalpur Hiteishini 1889 

21. Utkalprabha 1891 

22. Utkal Sahitya 1897 

23. Utkal Madhupa 1900 

24. Mukura 1906 

25. Prabhat (Children's Magazine) 1909 

26. Asha 1913 

27. Satyabadi 1915 

28. Sahakara 1919 

29. Samaj 1919 

30. Panchamruta (Children's Magazine) 1920 

31. Baruni 1925 

32. Prajatantra 1930 

33. Bhanj a Pradeepa 1931 

34. Jahnamamu (Children's Magazine) 1932 

35. Jugabina 1933 

36. Nababharata 1934 

37. Dagaro 1936 

38. Shankha 1945 

39. Chaturanga 1946 

40. Jhankara 1949 


First Editor/Promoter Frequency / Place 

Sadhusundar Das Kujibara 

Rev. C. Lacey Cuttack 

Rev. W. C. Lacey Monthly, Cuttack 

Monthly, Cuttack 
Gourishankar Ray Weekly, Cuttack 

Fakir Mohan Senapati, Monthly/Fortnightly/ 

Gobinda Chandra Pattnaik Weekly, Baleswar 

Indra Ballav Bhattacharya Monthly/Weekly, Baleswar 

Peari Mohan Acharya Fortnightly, Cuttack 

Dinanath Banarjee Fortnightly, Cuttack 

Krushnachandra Pattnaik Monthly, Cuttack 

Srihari Prasad Das Fortnightly, Baripada 

Flaradhana Roy Weekly, Puri 

W. Miller, FI. F. Hill Monthly, Baleswar 

Bhabagrahi Das, 

Chaturbhuja Pattnaik Monthly, Cuttack 

Bhabagrahi Das Monthly/Weekly, Cuttack 

Sarat Chandra Mukhejree Monthly, Cuttack 

Jogendranath Jena, 

Madhusudan Rao Monthly, Cuttack 

Weekly, Baleswar 

Sadhu Charan Ray, Reba Ray Monthly, Cuttack 
Nilamani Bidyaratna Weekly, Bamanda 

Chaitanya Prasad Ray Monthly, Baripada 

Viswanath Kar Monthly Cuttack 

Nilamani Bidyaratna Monthly, Bamanda 

Brajasundar Das Monthly, Cuttack 

Reba Ray Monthly, Cuttack 

Shashibhusan Rath Brahmapur 

Gopabandhu Das Monthly, Brahmapur 

Laxmi Narayan Sahu Monthly, Cuttack 

Balakrushna Kar 

Gopabandhu Das Weekly/Daily, Cuttack 

Chintamani Acharya Monthly, Cuttack 

Raj Kishor Das Quarterly, Cuttack 

Harekrushna Mahatab Weekly/Daily, Cuttack 

Radhagobinda Das Monthly, Baripada 

Balakrushna Kar Monthly, Cuttack 

Harihar Mohapatra Monthly, Cuttack 

Nilakantha Das Monthly, Cuttack 

Laxmikanta Mohapatra Fortnightly, Bhadrak 

Mayadhar Mansingh Monthly, Bamanda 

Kalindi Charan Panigrahi Monthly, Bolangir 

Flarekrushna Mahatab Monthly, Cuttack 


- 18 - 



TABLE 2 


PRE-1950 SCIENCE BOOKS & REFERENCE WORKS 

(All available pages, mostly complete, have been included in the compilation. 
Click on the serial number in blue to access the relevant file.) 

GENERAL BOOKS 


SL 

Pub Year 

Author 

Title and Notes 

01. 

1830-32 

Amos Sutton 

Padarthabidya Sara, V.1&2, Elements of Natural 
Philosophy, Oriya & English, 2nd Ed., 1840, 
pp. 144+144 

02. 

1866 

Fakir Mohan Senapati 

Jibana Charita, 68pp., Reprinted 1993, 
Translation of portions of Eshwar Chandra 
Vidyasagar's Bengali work, which was a 
translation from a book of biographies in English. 
Includes biographies of Copernicus, Galileo, 
Herschel, Newton, Linneus and others. 

03. 

1867 

John Short 

Tikadeba Bisayaka Bidhana, "Vaccination 
Practices" 

04. 

1871 

Dwaraknath Chakraborty 

Jada Bigy’an, "Physical Science" 

05. 

1872 

Gowree Sunker Roy 

Prakruta Bhugola, 2nd edn., ~1 1 0pp., A general 
reader on Geography. 

06. 

1874 

Prabhakar Chudamani 

Swasthyaraksha, "Health & Hygiene" (Radhika 
Prasanna Mukhopadhyaya) 

07. 

1876 

Bholanath Das 

Pranitattwa, v. 1, "Biology" 

08. 

1878 

Bholanath Das 

Sarala Jada Bigyan , "Simple Physical Science" 

09. 

1878 

Bhubaneswar Dutta 

Sarala Rasayana, "Simple Chemistry" 

10. 

1879 

W. D. Stewart 

Padartha Bigyan, 72pp., "Elementary Physics" 

11. 

1885 

Ramakrushna Sahu 

Shishupalana O Shishusiksha, "Childcare and 
Children's education" 

12. 

1886 

Chaturbhuja Pattnaik 

Swasthya Sadhana, "Health Resources" 

13. 

1886 

Ramakrushna Sahu 

Sharira Raksha, "Care of the Body" 

14. 

1887 

Ramakrushna Sahu 

Jhadakai Rogara Chikitsa, "Treatment of 
Diarrhoea" 

15. 

1890 

Jogeshchandra Roy 

Sarala Padartha Bigyan, "Elements of Physics", 
4th ed. 1897, 104pp/ 

16. 

1892 

Nilamani Bidyaratna 

Godhan Raksha, "Cattle Care" 

17. 

1892 

Nilamani Bidyaratna 

Bisuchika Chikitsa, "Treatment of Cholera" 

18. 

1891 

Shyamsundar Pattnaik 

Swasthya Sadhana, iv+78pp., "The Way to Health: 
A Sanitary Primer" - A general guide on heath, 
hygiene and medical problems. 

19. 

1895 

Sitanath Ray 

Swasthyasadhanara Prashnottar, 4th edn., 22 pp., 
A question-answer guide on general health for 
students, junior health workers. 


19 - 


SL 

Pub Year 

Author 

20. 

1911 

H. Armitstid 

21. 

1915 

Sachchidananda Deb 


22. 

1915 

Nilamani Bidyaratna 

23. 

1917 


24. 

1918 

Jagannath Garabadu 

25. 

1920 

Madanmohan Pradhan 

26. 

1927 

S. Nayak 

27. 

1927 

S. Nayak 

28. 

1929 

Banabihari Pattnaik 

29. 

1929 

Banabihari Pattnaik 

30. 

1929 

Radhacharan Panda 

31. 

1930 

Chandramani Mohapatra 

32. 

1930 

Ramakrushna Mohapatra 

33. 

1932 

Chandrasekhar Mishra 


Title and Notes 

Udhcha-prathmika Bigy> ana-path a, iv+32 pp., 
Science text-book for upper primary classes and a 
generally informative reader with many 
illustrations. 

Brusti Bijnan pt.I, 80pp., The first full science 
book in Oriya. A book on meteorology for the 
common man. The part one was to serve as a 
background reader for the second part with local 
data collected by the author in his own 
observatory. But the second part was never 
published and the manuscript, if completed, 
remains untraced. 

Jibana Bandhu, ii+19pp., A booklet about water. 
The importance of water for life, water sources, 
contamination, protection and purification. 

Prakruti Parjyabekshana Path a, 24pp., A nature 
study guide for students, but with material of 
general interest. 

Padartha Patha, iv+20pp., A study guide for 
physical sciences containing material of general 
interest. 

Krushak Bandhu, vi+ 129pp., A guide book on 
agriculture for the public. Contains background 
material on plant and soil science and medical 
problems of live stock. 

Basantaroga Pratikara, iii+1 7pp. , A guide book on 
small pox. 

Olautha Pratikara, 3rd edn., iii+24pp., A guide 
book on cholera. 

Basanta, pp., A treatise on Smallpox. 

Bishuchika, xxiv+137pp., A treatise on cholera. 
Maleria, "Malaria" 

Jeebana, Aloka O Parichhanata'ra Prasnottara, 
ii+46pp., Questions and answers on hygiene. 

Swasthya Bigyan, ii+70pp., General book on 
health science. 

Samanta Chandrasekhar, ix+270pp., A biography 
of Samanta Chandrasekhar (1835-1904), the 
naked-eye astronomer noted for his highly 
accurate ephemerical computations. One of the 
most celebrated scientific personalities of Orissa. 
This is one of the earliest comprehensive 
biographies in Oriya language and is also notable 
for its extensive discussion of the person's work 
along with his life story. 


20 - 


SL 

Pub Year 

Author 

34. 

1932 

Radhashyam Das 

35. 

1933 

Radhashyam Das 

36. 

1933 

Rajendra Charan Pradhan 

37. 

1934 

Banabihari Pattnaik 

38. 

1934 

Krushnachandra Kar 

39. 

1935 

Aaram Patra 

40. 

1937 

Banchhanidhi Satapathy 


41. 

1940 

Banabihari Pattnaik 

42. 

1940 

Padmacharan Pattnaik 


Title and Notes 

Swasthya Shiksya, xiv+134pp., A general book on 
the science of the human body and on ways to take 
care of the same through physical excercise. 

Khadya, vi+ ~90pp., Discusses the nutritional 
aspects of various food stuff and diets in relation to 
health and diseases. 

Soura Jagat, "Solar System" 

Sis hit Swasthya, iv+47pp., A book on infant 
hygiene. 

Prakrutipatha Siksha, ii+18pp., Aprimer on nature 
study with short descriptions of many plants. 

Udvida Bigyan, ii+133pp., "Plant Science" 

Rogara Atmakatha, x+238pp., Their own story as 
told by the diseases. Causes and management of 
various common diseases described in first person 
from the point of view of the diseases and their 
causative organisms. 

Aama Deha, xi+123pp., 3 plates, A general reader 
on human physiology and anatomy. 

Odia’ra Khadya O Swasthya, xiv+274pp., A 
discussion on the nutritive value of common foods 
consumed by the people of Orissa and their 
relation to health and disease. Discusses ways to 
health through physical activities and 
supplementation with easily available nutritional 
food. 


43. 1943 


44. 1947 

45. 1947 


46. 1948 


Gopalchandra Pattanayak 


Prasad 


Raghunath Padhi 


M. V. Apparao 


Materia, viii+48pp., Discusses the medical, social 
and management aspects of malaria in a way 
useful for the common man and field health 
workers. 

E Jugara Asura, ii+23pp., "The demon of this 
era". Presents the dropping of atom bomb in form 
of a story. 

Sadharana Bigyana, viii+88, One of the earliest 
science text books in Oriya written in the modem 
style, shortly after Oriya language was accepted as 
the medium for school science curriculum. 

Materia Patha, v+ 108pp. + 40pp. illustrations and 
colour plates. A heavily illustrated handbook on 
maleria. 


47. 1949 Gopalchandra Pattanayak Swasthya Satin, v+136 pp. (new edition), A lucid 

text on health sciences for upper primary classes, 
but useful for a general reader. 


-21 - 


SL 

Pub Year 

Author 

48. 

1949 

Gokulananda Mohapatra 


49. 1950 Gokulananda Mohapatra 


50. 1950c. Godabarisha Mishra 


51. 

1950c. 

Godabarisha Mishra 

52. 

1950c. 

Godabarisha Mishra 


Title and Notes 

Bigy>ana Bishmaya, viii+100pp., Probably the first 
popular science book in Oriya. A compilation of 
the author's articles published in various 
magazines. The author is the first popular science 
writer to have written extensively on wide-ranging 
topics in Oriya. 

Bigyana Krutitwa, xxx+150pp., illustr.+plates, The 
second compilation as above with a set of different 
articles. 

Pilanka Kahinki 1, II, (7th ed. 1999) vii+64+76pp., 
A noted educationist and literateur, Godabarisha 
Mishra taught at the Satyabadi Bana Vidyalaya - a 
nationalist and reformist centre for education. This 
book, which grew out of that experience, is a 
compendium of questions commonly asked by the 
children along with their scientific answers 

Ghatantara, 56pp., "Change of Body". A science 
fiction story inspired by Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 

Nirbasita, 174pp., "Banished". A science fiction 
novel. 


WORKS OF REFERENCE (Sample science-related entries and pages given in the compilation) 

Rl. 1931-40 Gopal Chandra Praharaj Purnachandra Odia Bhashakosha, v.1-7, ~9500pp. 

Encyclopedic Lexicon with many entries on 
science subjects. Lists about 1300 plants with their 
Botanical names and has entries of varying length 
on many science subjects. 


R2. 1935 Bhagirathi Mahapatra Ratnakosha ba Bruhat Bibidha Sangraha, ~ 450pp. 

A compendium of facts and notes on various 
subjects. 


R3. 1941 Balakrushna Kar Sishu Sankhali - Bichitra Jiba Jagat, xxii+400pp. 

Part of a multi-volume encyclopedia each volume 
of which was on a single theme. Profusely 
illustrated, with some in colour. 


- 22 - 


TABLE 3 

SELECTED SCIENCE ARTICLES IN ORIYA PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1850 AND 1950 

(Clicking on the title will display the full article) 


Title/Author 

Year / Periodical 

Subject matter (word count) 

Blood Circulation 
( Rakta Chaliba Bisaya) 

1856 

Prabodh Chandrika 

Blood circulation through veins and 
arteries, blood purification, function of the 
heart. (451) 

Science Association in 
Calcutta ( Kalikatare Gotie 
Bigyianasabha) 

1869 

Utkal Dipika 

News of preparations for the establishment 
of a Science Association by Dr. 
Mahendralal Sarkar (326) 

Lightning Conductor 
(Bidyut Parichalaka 
Loliaragaja) 

1869 

Utkal Dipika 

Nature of lightning and electricity, 
functioning and utility of a lightning 
conductor. (135) 

Light and Ether 
( Alokara Upadana Ithar ) 

1869 

Utkal Dipika 

Tindal's ideas about transmission of light 
through vibration of all pervasive, elastic 
ether, colour and wavelength. (101) 

Science Education 
{Bigyana Shastra Shiksha) 

1871 

Utkal Dipika 

Value of science in day to day life, 
benefits of scientific awareness in 
improving living conditions. (562) 

The Moon and Stars 
( Chandra 0 Tara) 
Madhusudan Rao 

1873 

Utkal Darpan 

Conversation among the stars on the 
changing appearance of the moon and a 
comet. (763) 

Life on other Planets? 

( Grahamane Pranimananka 
Abasabhumi Ki Na?) 

1873 

Utkal Darpan 

Are there living beings on other planets? 
Can life there be detected through a 
powerful telescope? Considers the 
requirements for life and if these exist on 
the other terrestrial planets. (1114) 

Sun 

( Surjya ) 

Fakir Mohan Senapati 

1875 

Baleswar Sambadbahika 

Sun as the centre of solar system, it's 
shape, size, distance from the earth, energy, 
and motion. (289) 

Science and its Benefits 
{Bigyana 0 Sethira 
Upakarita) 

1880 

Baleswar Sambadbahika 

Summary of a public lecture on the nature 
of science, prevalence of scientific thought 
in India in the past and some modem 
inventions benefiting the society. (1109) 

Comet 

( Dhumaketu ) 

Fakir Mohan Senapati 

1881 

Baleswar Sambadbahika 

Comments on the visible comet, its 
distance from sun, size of the head and 
tail, origin of comet, periodicity. (577) 

Cooking by Solar energy 
( Surjyarashmi Dhari 
Randhana Karjya) 

1881-82 

Mayurbhanj 

News of cooking by solar energy since the 
fossil fuels are getting exhausted. (24) 

Astonishing Property 
of Oil ( Tailara Ki 
Ashcharjya Guna) 

1882 

Purusottam Patrika 

A story about how a bit of oil can prevent 
boiling over of dal being cooked because 
of its surface tension altering property. 
Suggests that oil can also calm the waves 
in a large body of water. (338) 


- 23 - 



Title/Author 

Year / Periodical 

Subject matter (word count) 

13. 

Venus Transit 

1882 

The upcoming transit of venus will not be 


(Shukra Sanchara Uttara) 

Purusottam Patrika 

visible from Orissa. (114) 

14. 

'Bigyan Darpan' 

1882 

Review of the 4th issue of the science 


(Patrika Prapti - 
Bigyana Darpana) 

Baleswar Sambadbahika 

magazine in Oriya. "Carries articles on 
Science of Aryans, Charles Darwin..." (87) 

15. 

Mosquito 

1884 

Types of mosquitoes, their breeding 


( Mashakajati ) 

Utkal Dipika 

habits and life cycle. (78) 

16. 

Planet Venus 

1884 

Seen as evening and morning stars, its 


(Shukra Graha) 

Taraka 

distance from sun, diurnal and annual 
periods, atmosphere, no satellites... (221) 

17. 

Asteroid Palas 

1884 

Hundreds of mini planets between Mars 


(Palasa Graha Punja) 

Taraka 

and Jupiter, Palas being the largest. Origin 
of the asteroids. (116) 

18. 

Observation and Experiment 

1885 

Function of science is to find the causes 


(Paridarshana O Pariksha) 

Pradeepa 

of natural phenomena, observation and 


experimentation are its tools, explained 
with examples like evaporation and 
condensation of water. (823) 


19. The Infinite Universe 1888 Just as a town is a small part of the 

( Brahmandara Asimatwa ) Odia O Nabasambada earth, the solar system is a tiny speck 

in the Universe. Extremely large distances 
between the stars and the vastness of the 
Universe are hard to comprehend. (467) 


20. The Earth 
( Pruthibi ) 

21. Science 

( Bigyana ) 


1890 

Sambalpur Hiteishini 

1893 

Asha 


Facts and phenomena relating to earth as a 
planet, its origin, shape, size, motion etc. 
With illustrations. (1500) 

Nature of science, its divisions, facts about 
cloud, lightning, thunder, rain, storm, 
cyclone, air etc. (513) 


22. Musings on the Eclipses 
( Grahana Bichara) 
Jalandhar Deb 


23. Star 
(Tara) 


1896 

Sambalpur Hiteishini 


1897 

Sambalpur Hiteishini 


Discusses the causes, features and 
locational circumstances of lunar and 
solar eclipses. Questions the practice of 
fasting and observing other rituals even by 
the educated persons during the eclipses. 
(1400) 

Nature of a star, number of stars seen with 
the naked eye as well as through a 
telescope, cataloguing of stars by Hoselter, 
Gelami, William and John Herschel and 
others. Stars are much larger suns. (869) 


24. Benjamin Franklin 1897 

( Benjamin Franklin) Utkal Sahitya 

Shyamasundar Nanda 


Life sketch of Benjamin Franklin 
emphasising his early struggles. (526) 


- 24 - 



Title/Author 

25. Bodies of Water 
(. Jalarashi ) 
Madhusudan Rao 


Year / Periodical 

1898 

Prabandhamala 


26. Photography 1902-03 

( Alokachitra Ba Photography ) Utkal Sahitya 
Shyamasundar Sathia 


Subject matter (word count) 

Water covers a much larger part of 
earth's surface, supports diverse plant and 
animal life, helps man with indusrty and 
transportation, inland and ocean water, 
water cycle, composition of water. (491) 

Nine-part serial on all aspects of 
photography both in theory and practice. 
Discusses light and camera. (9514) 


27. Degeneration and extinction 1905 

( Jibamanankara Apagamana Utkal Sahitya 

O Lop a) 

Tarinicharan Rath 


28. Light 
{Aloka) 


1906 

Mukura 


29. Plants and Light 

( Aloka Sahita Udvidara 
Samparka) 

Mrutyunjaya Rath 

30. Chemical Principles 
( Rasayan Tattwa ) 
Satyakumar Ray 


1907 

Prabandha Patha 


1908 

Mukura 


31. Chats between Grandfather 1908-09 

and Grandson Mukura 

(Aja Nati Rahasya ) 

Jagannath Tripathy 


32. Surprising Function of Dust 1909 
(. Dhulira Ashcharjya Karjya ) Prabhata 


33. Scientific Terminology 1909 

( Baigyanika Paribhasha ) Utkal Sahitya 

Jagannath Tripathy 


Changes in the physical form of organisms 
through evolution and adaptation, loss of 
capability because of disuse and 
parasitism, extinction more common 
among larger animals. (1241) 

Light, its propagation and properties, 
X-rays, radioactive rays, radium and 
its miraculous properties. (1982) 

Effects of light on the growth, colour and 
response of plants. Mechanism of folding 
up of mimosa leaves. (781) 


Discusses atom, elements, chemical 
transformation, phlogiston theory, works of 
Ray, Boyle and Pristley on combustion 
and oxygen, chemical composition of air, 
water, vermilion. (1140) 

A multipart series dealing with various 
scientific questions and explanations 
presented as lively chats. The topics 
include: vaporisation and condensation of 
water, clouds, rain, fog, dew; steam engine 
and trains; Newton, gravitation and earths 
revolution, hail stone, rock and soil; 
pebbles, diamond and glass; lightning, 
electricity, telegraph. (3953) 

An early science article in the first 
children's magazine. Dust present 
everywhere upto very high in the 
atmosphere, responsible for diffuse light, 
colourations of the sky, redness of the 
rising and setting sun. With diagram (633) 

Problems of presenting scientific ideas 
in local language, reactions of the 
literateurs to new words. (609) 


- 25 - 



Title/Author 


Year / Periodical 


Subject matter (word count) 


34. Halley's Comet 1909 

( Helira Dhumaketu ) Sambalpur Hiteishini 

Jalandhar Deb 


35. Earthworm and Other 1910 

Living Manures Mukura 

( Jiyanala (Mahilata) Prabhruti 
Ketoti Jibita Sara) 

Gopal Charan Pattnaik 

36. Science and Literature 1911 

(Bigyana O Sahitya) Utkal Sahitya 

Shashibhushan Ray 


37. Teaching of Zoology 1913 

(Jibabigyan Shiskha) Utkal Sahitya 

Tarini Charan Rath 


1914 

Utkal Sahitya 

Bigyana) 

Pranakrushna Parija 


38. Science in Everyday Life 
( Sadharana Jibanare 


39. 

Acharya Jagadish Chandra 

1915 


( Acharjya Jagadisha Chandra) Utkal Sahitya 
Chintamani Acharya 

40. 

Plant Mysteries 

1915-17 


( Udvida Rahasya) 
Nilakantha Das 

Satyabadi 

41. 

Amoeba 

1918 


( Paribartti ) 
Banabihari Pattnaik 

Satyabadi 

42. 

Life Story of Diamond 

1920 


( Hirara Jibana Kahani) 
Gurucharan Mohanty 

Utkal Sahitya 


An nounces the forthcoming naked eye 
visibility of Halley's comet. Encourages 
people to see the comet and decries the 
fear of comets and eclipses. Discusses 
the common characteristics of comets, 
periodicity, appearances and the current 
movements of Halley's comet. (1054) 

Habit and habitat of earthworms and 
dung beetles, their role in farming, top 
soil enrichment, nitrogen fixation by 
leguminous plants. (925) 


Discusses the eternal question of which is 
superior - science or literature, explores 
the strengths, weaknesses of both and 
finds them complementing each other for 
the benefit of the society. (934) 

Discusses nature and method of science, 
of zoology and its divisions like 
morphology, physiology, classification, in 
comparison to other branches of 
science. (1527) 

How science has progressed through man's 
questioning and seeking answers. Man 
needs to apply the results of science to 
reap its benefits. Open mind free from 
blind beliefs and vanity of education 
would lead to progress. (1210) 

Biography of J. C. Bose with highlights of 
his work and achievements. (2569) 


A series on various aspects of plant 
science. Includes origin of plants, plant 
propagation, diversity, physiology. (10195) 

Structure and life process of the tiny 
single-celled organism. (683) 


Three-part series on the formation and 
chemistry of diamond in a story form. A 
diamond is burnt to produce Carbon- 
dioxide which gets captured by a plant 
and is converted into sugar, the sugar is 
used in an experiment to produce artificial 
diamond through a series of long chemical 
processes. (2680) 


- 26 - 



Title/Author 


Year / Periodical 


Subject matter (word count) 


43. 

Sundial 

1921 


( Surjyaghadi ) 
Shyamachandra Tripathy 

Panchamruta 

44. 

Sexuality in Plants 

1922 


( Udvidara Jaunattwo ) 
Biraj Mohan Senapati 

Sahakar 

45. 

Travels Around the Universe 

1924 


(Bish wabhram ana ) 
Narayan Prasad Sathiya 

Mukura 

46. 

Can Insects hear? 

1926 


( Pokamane Ka'an 
Shuniparanti ?) 

Baruni 

47. 

Theory of Evolution 

1924-1930 


( Bibarttanabada ) 
Ratnakar Pati 

Utkal Sahitya 

48. 

Science Question & Answers 

1926 


(Bigyana Prashnottara ) 

Panchamruta 

49. 

Light and Sensing It 

1927 


( Aloka O Tahara Anubhuti ) 
Haribandhu Mohanty 

Utkal Sahitya 

50. 

Plant Science in Ancient 

1928 


India ( Prachina Bharatare 
Udvida Bidya) 

Upendra Chandra Mishra 

Utkal Sahitya 

51. 

Poison Plants 

1930 


( Bishabruksha ) 
Pranakrushna Parija 

Panchamruta 

52. 

Science in Orissa 

1931 


( Od is hare Bigyana 
Charchcha ) 

Radha Charan Panda 

Sahakar 

53. 

Sir Chandrasekhar 

1932 


Venkataraman 

Utkal Sahitya 


(Sir Chandrasekhar Venkataraman ) 
Agani Dash 


For children. Instructions for making 
a sundial and calculations for marking the 
hour angles. (486) 

Seed production in plants through 
pollination, structure of the male and 
female flowers, fertilisation. (1616) 

An imaginary account of space travel at 
enormous speed. Describes the objects 
seen during the travel - Mars, Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus and comets at the 
boundary of the solar system. (2108) 

Generally believed that insects have no 
hearing organ, yet they can manage to 
survive and feed without any problem. 
Discusses examples of how insects 
communicate otherwise. Illustrated. (905) 

A long series of articles on the theory of 
evolution, including inorganic evolution. 
(21,700) 

Why do we feel breathless? (255) What is 
fainting? (242) Why can't we see in the 
dark? (557) Why does a swan not get 
wet? (197) Short discussions for children. 

What is light, sense of vision and the eye, 
corpuscular and wave theories of light, 
ether and propagation of light, physiology 
of vision and sensory processing in the 
brain, colour perception. (2932) 

Well developed because of its utility in 
in Ayurveda, plants classified in many 
different ways based on form, utility, 
location etc., plant diseases and some 
remedies. (2176) 

Article for children on some poisonous 
plants and their action on the body. (480) 

Science education in Orissa should cover 
broader areas and should be changed to 
encourage creativity. Teachers and other 
educated people do not read science. They 
need to continue their development 
through reading and discussions. (1999) 

Biography of C. V. Raman detailing his 
life and personality, academic career, 
research work, achievements and his work 
for spreading science in India. (1740) 


- 27 - 



Title/Author 


Year / Periodical 


Subject matter (word count) 


54. The Digestive Apparatus 1932 

( Khadya Paripakakriya Sahakar 

Sahajyakari Jantrabali ) 

Basanta Kumar Nanda 

55. Airship 1932 

( Bayupota ) Sahakar 

Jagannath Tripathy 

56. Medical Sciences 1932 

( Chikitsabigyana ) Sahakar 

Jayakrushna Mohanty 


57. Heavy Hydrogen, Uranus, 1933 

Neptune and Pluto Rasachakra 

{Guru Udjana, Uranus, Neptune O Pluto) 

58. Sun-rays, Plants and the 1934 

Living World ( Surjyarashmi , Naba Bharat 

Udvida O Jibajagata) 

Banshidhar Samantaray 

59. Story of Colour 
{Rangara Katha) 

Basant Kumar Behura 


60. Heredity 
( Bamshanuguna ) 

Banshidhar Samantaray 

61. Carnivorous plants 
{Mams as i Udvida) 

Bansidhar Samantray 

62. Meteor 
{Ulkapata) 

Banshidhar Samantaray 

63. Indian Science Congress 1937 
{Bharatiya Bigyana Kangress) Sahakar 
Bhagaban Pati 


1934 

Jahnamamu 


1934-35 

Sahakar 

1935 
Sahakar 

1936 

Utkal Sahitya 


64. Predictions for Birds 
{Pakhi Samudrika) 
Jagatmohan Sen 

65. Pasteur and Bacteria 
{Bigyana O Baigyanika) 
Banshidhar Samantaray 


1938 

Bhanja Pradeepa 

1939 

Utkal Sahitya 


Discussion primarily on teeth, their role 
in digestive process, problems and care of 
teeth. Brief mention of the tongue, Parotid, 
Submaxillary and Sublingual glands. (1679) 

Sketches the development of flying 
machines through balloon, dirigible, glider, 
monoplane and biplane stages. Illustrated. 
(1652) 

Medical sciences in ancient India, 
Ayurveda, interaction with the Greeks and 
Arabs, modern medical practices, reasons 
for low acceptance of modem medical 
education in India, future outlook. (2481) 

Short articles on these new 
discoveries. (318) 


Sun-rays support life on earth by 
supplying energy which is captured and 
converted by the plants. (1032) 


Colour explained for children. Sunlight has 
seven colours and gives colour to 
everything by getting absorbed or reflected 
partially. Colours can mix to give different 
colours. (784) 

A long series on heredity and genetics 
with illustrated details of chromosome 
distribution and formation of hybrids. 

Describes with illustrations various 
carnivorous plants. (2470) 


Origin and composition of the meteors, 
meteor shower, Leonid meteor shower of 
1866. (1258) 

A report on the 25th Indian Science 
Congress along with background of its 
formation, its objectives, summary of the 
addresses by the Viceroy and President of 
the Congress Sir James Jean. (2072) 

Deducing the food habits and life styles 
of some birds by looking at their claws. 
Illustrated. (1660) 

Biography of Louis Pasteur with details of 
his work on isomers, bacterial fermentation, 
antiseptics, diphtheria etc. (2158) 


- 28 - 



Title/Author 


Year / Periodical 


Subject matter (word count) 


66. Physical and Mental Growth 1941 

( Sarira Abhibrudhhire Manara Naba Bharat 
Manara Abhibrudhhi ) 

Nilamani Behera 


67. Three Gods of Health 1941 

( Swasthyara Tini Debata) Jahnamamu 

Gopal Chandra Pattanayak 


68. The Brain and Intelligence 1941 

( Mastiska O buddhi ) Bhanjapradeepa 

Ramakrushna Nanda 


69. Creation and Extinction of 1941 

the Living World Naba Bharat 

( Jibajagatara Srusti O Bilaya ) 

Gadadhar Mishra 


Part of a series on the importance of 
handwork education. Discusses the 
functional areas of brain and how these 
control the hands and the need for timely 
training of the hand movements for proper 
development of mental faculty. (1387) 

Role of Sun light, heat and air in keeping 
us healthy, explained for children. (1515) 


Relationship of brain structure and size 
with intelligence in different animals, 
common perception about intelligence and 
method of measuring it. Illustrated (1868) 

Creation of the earth, development of 
life-supporting environment, origin and 
evolution of life, eventual extinction of all 
life with the cooling of the sun. (1161) 


70. Story of evolution 1942 

(Bibarttanabadara Katha ) Bhanjapradeepa 

Basant Kumar Behura 


71. Vitamins 1945 

( Khadyaprana Samuha) Sankha 

Narayan Das Dutta 

72. Contribution of Coal-tar to 1946 

Modern Science ( Adhunika Sankha 

Bigyanaku Alakatarara Sahajya) 
Gokulananda Mohapatra 

73. Cyclone 1946 

( Ghumibatya ) Sankha 

Brundaban Chandra Acharya 


74. Artificial Diamond 1947 

( Krutrima Upayare Him) Chaturanga 
Gokulananda Mohapatra 


How Darwin formulated the theory of 
evolution from living and fossil records, 
inspiration from Malthus, countering 
Lamarckism, work of Wallace, publication 
of "Origin of Species", concept of natural 
selection. (1564) 

Different vitamins, their occurence and 
role in human health, minerals needs of 
our body. (1538) 

Description of nearly 200 useful chemicals 
like dyes, plastics, explosives, drugs etc. 
present in coal-tar. (3580) 


Atmospheric disturbances arising out of 
sun's heating and earth's rotation 
leads to wind flow. Cyclone and typhoon 
are caused by large variations in 
atmospheric pressure. (1504) 

Chemical composition of diamond, details 
of the attempts to produce diamond in the 
laboratory. (1434) 


75. Expedition to the Moon 1947 

(i Chandra Abhimukhe Sankha 

Abhijaan) 

Kumudini Mohapatra 


Conditions on moon's surface and how to 
face these safely, possible ways to travel 
to the moon, from cannon balls to V-2 
rockets, nuclear or cosmic ray powered 
crafts. (1293) 


- 29 - 



Title/Author 

76. The Moon 
( Chandra ) 
Sadasiba Mishra 


Year / Periodical 

1948 

Sahakar 


77. Science and its Uses 1948 

(Bigyana O Tahara Sahitya Sourabha 

Byabahara) 

Radhanath Rath 


78. Son or Daughter 1949 

(Pua Na Jhia) Subama Smaraki 

Shyamananda Pattnaik 


79. The New Age of Science 1950 

( Bigyanara Nutana Juga) Satyabadi 

Haribandhu Mohanty (Naba Parjyaya) 


80. Progress of Science in the 1950 
Next Half-century Sahakar 

( Asanta Arddha Satabdi 
Madhyare Bigyanara Gati ) 

Sarat Chandra Routray 


Subject matter (word count) 

Physical characteristics and features of the 
moon, view of the earth from moon, 
phenomena like the eclipses and tides due 
to the moon. (1308) 

Remarkable advance in science has 
proven to be beneficial as well as 
destructive, faster travel and means of 
communication has won over distance, but 
missiles and nuclear bombs are 
devastating. Man is responsible for the 
uses and abuses of science, hence public 
awareness is important. (1324) 

Describes chromosomal aspects of human 
reproduction leading to a male or female 
offspring. Explains the process of 
fertilisation and distribution of X and Y 
chromosomes with illustrations. (1294) 

Starts with the devastating power of the 
nuclear bomb, explores the relationship 
between matter and energy from ancient 
times to Einstein and harnessing of nuclear 
energy. (2668) 

An adaptation of Bertrand Russell's article, 
'The Next Fifty Years' along with a life 
sketch of Russell. Outlines the advances 
made in science in the immediate past and 
predicts likely developments in cosmology, 
biology and psychology as well as in 
public consciousness about science. (2223) 


- 30 - 



TABLE 4 

SCIENCE WRITERS IN ORIYA LANGUAGE (1850-1950) 
Arranged in order of the authors' earliest writings 


si 

Name 

Life Span 

Background / Later Position 

Writing 

No. of 





Period 

Articles 

01. 

Madhusudan Rao 

1853-1912 

Literateur, Educationist 

1873-1900 

11 

02. 

Fakir Mohan Senapati 

1843-1918 

Literateur, Administrator 

1875-81 

3 

03. 

Jalandhar Deb 

1872-1952 

Literateur 

1896-46 

10 

04. 

Shyamasundar Nanda 


Literateur 

1897-1906 

6 

05. 

Madhusudan Dash 

1868-1949 

Teacher 

1897-99 

3 

06. 

Gangadhar Meher 

1874-1924 

Poet 

1898-1914 

2 

07. 

Gopal Chandra Praharaj 

1884-1945 

Law, Literateur 

1900-17 

2 

08. 

Shyamsundar Sathia 


Photographer, Ayurvedic doctor 

1902-03 

9 

09. 

Gopabandhu Bandopadhyaya 



1902-03 

1 

10. 

Mrutyunjaya Rath 

1882-1924 

Literateur 

1902-1921 

7 

11. 

Sachchidananda Deb 

1872-1916 

Literateur 

1903-15 

3 

12. 

Tarini Charan Rath 

1883-1922 

Literateur 

1903-1914 

8 

13. 

Mohini Mohan Senapati 

1881-1945 

Philosophy Professor, Literateur 

1905-06 

1 

14. 

Krushna Prasad Choudhury 

1865-1927 

Teacher, Essayist 

1906-10 

5 

15. 

Satya Kumar Ray 



1908-09 

2 

16. 

Jagannath Tripathy 

1883- 

Teacher 

1908-33 

16 

17. 

Gopal Charan Pattnaik 



1910 

3 

18. 

Madan Mohan Pradhan 


Agriculture Director 

1910 

1 

19. 

Shashibhushan Ray 

1876-1953 

Literateur 

1911-42 

6 

20. 

Pranakrushna Parija 

1891-1978 

Botany Professor, Vice Chancellor 

1913-41 

11 

21. 

Sachchidanand Ray 


Education Administration 

1914 

2 

22. 

Nilakantha Das(h) 

1884-1967 

Philosophy 

1915-50 

8 

23. 

Chintamani Acharya 

1891-1955 

History, Law, Vice Chancellor, Editor 

1918-19 

1 

24. 

Godabarisha Mishra 

1886-1956 

Economics, Socio-political Activist 

1918-19, 1950 2 

25. 

Banabihari Pattnaik 

1895-1971 

Medical Professor 

1918-22 

2 

26. 

Sribatsa Panda 

1870-1943 


1919-20 

1 

27. 

Gurucharan Mohanty 

1893-1986 

Chemistry Professor 

1920-24 

4 

28. 

Jutashri Prakash 



1921 

1 

29. 

Shyamachandra Tripathy 

1894-1951 

Physics, Deputy DPI, Bihar-Orissa 

1921 

1 

30. 

Prasanna Kumar Das 



1922-23 

3 

31. 

Biraj Mohan Senapati 

1889-1979 

Agriculture Scientist 

1922-23 

3 

32. 

Isac Santra 

1892-1968 

Doctor, Leprosy worker 

1922-23 

2 

33. 

Banshidhar Samantaray 

1912-1996 

Botany Professor 

1922-41 

39 

34. 

Bikram Deb Barma 

1869-1951 


1923-24 

1 

35. 

Narayan Prasad Sathia 



1924 

1 

36. 

Ratnakar Pati 

1889-1969 

Philosophy Professor 

1924-31 

16 

37. 

Jayakrushna Pattnaik 


Agriculture Administration 

1925 

1 

38. 

Mayadhar Mishra 



1925 

1 

39. 

Lakshminarayan Sahu 

1890-1963 

Socio-political worker 

1926-27 

1 

40. 

Padarabinda Mohanty 



1926-27 

1 

41. 

Rajkishore Mohanty 



1926-27 

2 

42. 

Srikrushna Mohanty 



1926-27 

1 


- 31 - 



si 

Name 

Life Span 

Background / Later Position 

Writing 

Period 

No. of 
Articles 

43. 

Agani Dash 


Teacher 

1926-38 

3 

44. 

Haribandhu Mohanty 

1904-1991 

Physics, Science Administration 

1927-50 

6 

45. 

Upendra Chandra Mishra 


Oriya Professor 

1928-29 

1 

46. 

Narayan Mohan Das 



1931-32 

1 

47. 

Basanta Kumar Nanda 


Doctor 

1931-34 

4 

48. 

Radhacharan Panda 

1898-1974 

Doctor, Literateur 

1931-36 

2 

49. 

Balakrushna Kar 

1887-1959 

Literateur, Magazine Editor 

1932-33 

1 

50. 

Baikoli Mohapatra 

1908-1977 

Astrologer 

1932-33 

2 

51. 

Jayakrushna Mohanty 

1909-1994 

Medical Professor 

1932-33 

2 

52. 

Bhagaban Pati 

1903- 

Journalist 

1932-38 

2 

53. 

Aswini Kumar Ghosh 

1892-1962 


1933 

1 

54. 

Basudeb Kar 

1913- 

Essayist 

1933-34 

1 

55. 

Jagatmohan Sen 

1906c. -1940 

Teacher 

1933-41 

4 

56. 

Banshidhar Parija 

1911- 

Botany Professor 

1934 

1 

57. 

Suryamani Kar 



1934-35 

1 

58. 

Jogesh Chandra Mitra 



1934-36 

2 

59. 

Basant Kumar Behura 

1922- 

Zoology Professor 

1934-51 

9 

60. 

Ras Behari Das 



1935 

1 

61. 

Baidyanath Rath 



1935 

1 

62. 

Ramprasad Singh 

1904- 


1935-36 

3 

63. 

Kalikinkar Samanta 



1935-36 

1 

64. 

Raghunath Mohanty 

192 1 (?) 

Raghu Dibakar (1910-1941)? 

1935-36 

1 

65. 

Purnachandra Mohanty 

1903-1956 

Physics, Scientist 

1935-36 

1 

66. 

Dayanidhi Pattnaik 



1936-37 

2 

67. 

Haraprasad Deb 



1937 

1 

68. 

Banamali Mishra 

1897(?) 


1938 

1 

69. 

Gunanidhi Dash 



1939-40 

1 

70. 

Haribandhu Sharma 



1940 

1 

71. 

Nilamani Behera 



1940 

1 

72. 

Brahmananda Mishra 


Physics Professor 

1940-41 

1 

73. 

Gopal Chandra Pattanayak 

1903-1985 

Doctor, Health Administration 

1940-45 

5 

74. 

Ramakrushna Nanda 

1906-1994 

Headmaster, Magazine Editor 

1941 

1 

75. 

Shradhhakar Supkar 

1914-1993 

Socio-political worker 

1941 

1 

76. 

Gadadhar Mishra 

1923-2008 

Botany Professor 

1941-48 

8 

77. 

Harischandra Badal 

1904-1995 

Science graduate, Railway Service 

1942-43 

1 

78. 

Brundaban Chandra Acharya 

1921- 

Geography 

1946 

2 

79. 

Prabhas Chandra Sarkar 



1946 

1 

80. 

Gokulananda Mohapatra 

1922- 

Chemistry Professor 

1946-50 

26 

81. 

Kumudini Mohapatra 

1930-2006 


1947-48 

1 

82. 

Sadashiba Mishra 

1909-1994 

Economics Professor 

1947-48 

4 

83. 

Radhanath Rath 

1920- 

Psycology Professor 

1948 

1 

84. 

Shyamananda Pattnaik 


Botany, Director Soil Conservation 

1949-50 

2 

85. 

Kailash Chandra Tripathy 

1945-2009 


1950-51 

1 

86. 

Sarat Chandra Routray 



1950-51 

2 


(16 other writers made single minor contribution each. 102 identifiable authors in all.) 


- 32 - 



TABLE 5 

ORIYA SCIENCE WRITINGS: SOME STATISTICS 
TABLE 5a: Number of articles found in the major periodicals 


Magazine 

Period Checked 

Articles <=200 words 

Longer Articles 

Tot; 

Baleswar Sambad Bahika 

1872 - 1892 

42 

25 

67 

Baruni 

1926 - 1927 

3 

14 

17 

Bhanja Pradeepa 

1935 - 43 

0 

8 

8 

Chaturanga 

1947 

0 

1 

1 

Dagaro 

1936-1950 

0 

2 

2 

Jahnamamu 

1932-36, 1940-42 

5 

54 

59 

Janmabhumi 

1941 

0 

1 

1 

Mayurabhanja 

1880 - 1882 

1 

1 

2 

Mukura 

1906 - 1925 

0 

20 

20 

Nababharat 

1934 - 1951 

2 

37 

39 

Odia 0 Nabasambad 

1888 - 1904 

23 

3 

26 

Panchamruta 

1920 - 1930 

1 

11 

12 

Prabhata 

1909 - 1914 

0 

7 

7 

Prabodha Chandrika 

1856 

0 

2 

2 

Pradeepa 

1885 

0 

5 

5 

Purussotam Patrika 

1882 

8 

3 

11 

Rasachakra 

1933 - 1934 

1 

5 

6 

Sahakar 

1921 - 1951 

13 

98 

111 

Sambalpur Hiteishini 

1889 - 1909 

19 

22 

41 

Sankha 

1945 . 1948 

0 

18 

18 

Sanskaraka 0 Sebaka 

1884 - 1885 

1 

3 

4 

Satyabadi 

1915 - 1920 

0 

10 

10 

Satyabadi Nabaparjyaya 

1950 

2 

5 

7 

Taraka 

1884 

2 

5 

7 

Upahar 

1935 - 1938 

0 

5 

5 

Utkal Darpan 

1873 

0 

5 

5 

Utkal Dipika 

1866 - 1910 

46 

22 

68 

Utkal Madhupa 

1879, 1900-01 

5 

1 

6 

Utkal Sahitya 

1897 - 1941 

4 

99 

103 

Misc. Publications 


4 

33 

37 

Bhashakosha - Ratnakosha 

1931-1940 

32 

26 

58 


- 33 - 



TABLE 5b: Distribution of articles according to their length 


Length (Words) 
<= 100 
101 -200 
201 -300 
301 - 500 
501 - 1000 
1001 -2000 
2001 -3000 
> 3000 


No. of Articles 
112 
70 
45 
98 
159 
162 
47 
9 


(Excludes Bhashakosha and Ratnakosha data) 


TABLE 5c: Number of articles published over different periods 


Period 

Articles <= 200 words 

Longer Articles 

Total 


Number 

Number 

Number 

1856 - 1880 

45 

31 

76 

1881 - 1890 

56 

45 

101 

1891 - 1900 

42 

42 

84 

1901 - 1910 

11 

59 

70 

1911 - 1920 

9 

26 

35 

1921 - 1930 

9 

76 

85 

1931 - 1940 

13 

127 

140 

1941 - 1950 

6 

110 

116 


(Excludes Bhashakosha and Ratnakosha data) 


TABLE 5d: Number of articles published by different authors 


No. of Articles 

Number of 

Total No. 

Authored 

Authors 

of Articles 

Annonymous/P s edonymous 

- 

347 

1 

54 

54 

2 

17 

34 

3 

7 

21 

4 

6 

24 

5 

3 

15 

6-10 

8 

63 

>10 

7 

149 


(Excludes Bhashakosha and Ratnakosha data) 


- 34 -